In Logic types of fallacy are firmly described thus: First the premises and the conclusion must be statements, capable of being true or false. Secondly it must be asserted that the conclusion follows from the premises. In English the words therefore , so , because and hence typically separate the premises from the conclusion of an argument, but this is not necessarily so. Thus: Socrates is a man, all men are mortal therefore Socrates is mortal is clearly an argument (a valid one at that), because it is clear it is asserted that Socrates is mortal follows from the preceding statements. However I was thirsty and therefore I drank is NOT an argument, despite its appearance. It is not being claimed that I drank is logically entailed by I was thirsty . The therefore in this sentence indicates for that reason not it follows that .
The anonymous author of the Old English epic Beowulf used a particular type of analogy called a “ kenning .” A kenning is a compound word that is a metaphorical recreation of a common concept. In the above excerpt, which is the opening paragraph of Beowulf , there are several kennings. “Spear-Danes,” “mead-benches,” “hall-troops,” and “whale-road” are all kennings. “Whale-road,” for example, is a kenning for the sea. The metaphorical meaning is that the sea is the road that whales use. Kennings were a very popular type of analogy in Old English, but have fallen almost completely out of favor in modern English.