Researchers place brief parenthetical descriptions to acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the last name of the author and the specific page numbers of the source. If such information is already given in the body of the sentence, then exclude it from the parenthetical citation. Place the parenthetical citation where there is a pause in the sentence – normally before the end of a sentence or a comma. The in-text citation will differ depending on how much information you provide within the sentence.
3. A , , or paper will create a "dialogue" between the essay author's ideas and her sources, and also among the sources themselves. and below evaluations will often summarize one point at a time, with the essay author's idea stated at the end. If you imagine a synthesis essay as a room in which the synthesis writer is joined by the authors of her/his sources, the , , or essay has everyone engaged in conversation or debate, with everyone commenting on (or arguing against) each other's ideas directly. In the and below essay, each person in the room stands up in turn, gives a speech, and sits down, with little or no question and answer period in between or afterward.