Although conventional wisdom and lay literature, based on impressionistic findings in the 1920s, have long presented human olfaction as capable of distinguishing between roughly 10,000 unique odors, recent research has suggested that the average individual is capable of distinguishing over one trillion unique odors.  Researchers in the most recent study, which tested the psychophysical responses to combinations of over 128 unique odor molecules with combinations composed of up to 30 different component molecules, noted that this estimate is "conservative" and that some subjects of their research might be capable of deciphering between a thousand trillion odorants, adding that their worst performer could probably still distinguish between 80 million scents.  Authors of the study concluded, "This is far more than previous estimates of distinguishable olfactory stimuli. It demonstrates that the human olfactory system, with its hundreds of different olfactory receptors, far out performs the other senses in the number of physically different stimuli it can discriminate."  However, it was also noted by the authors that the ability to distinguish between smells is not analogous to being able to consistently identify them, and that subjects were not typically capable of identifying individual odor stimulants from within the odors the researchers had prepared from multiple odor molecules. In November 2014 the study was strongly criticized by Caltech scientist Markus Meister, who wrote that the study's "extravagant claims are based on errors of mathematical logic".   The logic of his paper has in turn been criticized by the authors of the original paper. 
The generally accepted solution is to replace the freed road space with bus priority and other measures. This also helps prevent buses getting stuck in the traffic, which would render them useless in attracting users. A principle is that non-users should not derive the benefits, which would otherwise reduce effectiveness of the scheme (Parkhurst 1999b, p. vii). The corollary of all this is that schemes whose purpose is to provide environmental benefits, must include removal of parking spaces in the city to prevent new car travel as part of the implementation package.
ACM has named 53 of its members as ACM Fellows for major contributions in areas including artificial intelligence, cryptography, computer architecture, human-computer interaction, high performance computing and programming languages. The achievements of the 2016 ACM Fellows are accelerating the digital revolution, and affect almost every aspect of how we live and work today. “As nearly 100,000 computing professionals are members of our association, to be selected to join the top one percent is truly an honor,” says ACM President Vicki L. Hanson. (Image: 2015 ACM Fellows)