Icorporating appendixes in research papers

A non-self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, consisting of two or more ­sections, and so constructed that the sections may be combined to function as a single ladder.

Single ladder
A non-self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, consisting of one section.

Size
The quantitative description of the length of the ladder. Methods of defining size are presented in the individual standards.

Special-purpose ladder
A portable ladder that is either an experimentally designed ladder or a modification or assemblage of A14 approved requirements for design, testing or construction features of one of the general-purpose ladders defined elsewhere in this section, in order to adapt the ladder for special or specific climbing uses.

Standoff
A means by which a ladder may be erected at some horizontal distance away from its upper support point.

Stepladder
A self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, with flat steps and hinged base.

Step stool (ladder type)
A self-supporting, foldable, portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, 32 inches or less in size, with flat steps and without a pail shelf, designed so that the ladder top cap as well as all steps can be climbed on. The side rails may continue above the top cap.

Step surfaces
The clear portion of steps, rungs, or cleats on which a person may step while ascending or descending ladder.

Straight ladder
An articulated ladder where all of the sections are in line.

Test failure  
Damage or visible weakening of the ladder structure or a component, except where otherwise defined by the test protocol.

Test load
The applied load used to demonstrate compliance with performance test requirements.

Top cap
The uppermost horizontal member of a portable stepladder or step stool.

Top step
The first step below the top cap of a portable stepladder or step stool. Where a ladder is constructed without a top cap, the top step is the first step below the top of the rails.

Trestle (double front) ladder
A self-supporting portable ladder, non-adjustable in length, consisting of two sections, designed to be able to be climbed on by two (2) individuals simultaneously, one (1) per side and hinged at the top to form angles with the base.

Ultimate failure  
The collapse of the ladder structure or, where applicable, a component thereof.

Icorporating appendixes in research papers

icorporating appendixes in research papers

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