Question #4, above, is the most important question to answer well. If you can narrow down a universal idea based on the plot the of the book, you have effectively written a theme statement . But this is tricky. First, this idea needs to be somewhat broad. It must be applicable beyond the story (as in, a lesson, thought, or truth that applies to life) so it cannot contain direct references to plot details. However, this idea also needs to be specific enough that it isn't something that could be said about absolutely any book on the planet. Finally, it must be proven using examples from the story. Confused?