Patrick Glynn notes that the Promise Keepers succeed in racial reconciliation where politics has seemed to fail.  Scholar Siphiwe Dude notes that the organization has open discussions of race that promote racial reconciliation.  L. Dean Allen finds that while the organizations' leaders primarily claim that Satan is responsible for fostering racism in individuals and that the best way to counter racism is for people to personally repent and go to confession, PK participants see racism as a more multifaceted issue, citing historical animosity, economic differences, and racial fear. Further, while both leaders and participants see forming relationships with members of other races as important to battling racism, participants do not see PK events as valuable in developing these relationships.  Andrea Smith also notes that race relations between Promise Keepers and Native communities is more open.