Marxian Marxism was not only an ideology postulating change but a theory with scientific claims ('scientific socialism'), predicting future economic, social, and political developments, so it was inevitable that its forecasts should eventually be confronted with the actual course of events, which differed from the expectations universally held by Marxists on the basis of the theory. The first thing they had to discard was the belief that the proletarian revolution would occur in the economically developed countries. Originally it was axiomatic that, as Engels expressed it, 'anyone who says that a socialist revolution can be carried out in a country which has no proletariat or bourgeoisie proves by this statement that he has still to learn the ABC of socialism.' With the advantages of hindsight we know that the historical perspective envisaged in the Communist Manifesto was wrong: one hundred years later the 'proletarians' of the West have more to lose than their chains and it was Mao's peasant armies that were blazing the revolutionary trail to 'socialism'. All this hardly fitted Marx's anticipation in the celebrated passage . .