Don Ihde called the hypothesis being 'hyped' and referred to clear evidence about the use of optical tools by, ., Albrecht Dürer and Leonardo da Vinci and others. As well the 1929 Encyclopædia Britannica  contains an extensive article on the camera obscura and cites Leon Battista Alberti as the first documented user of the device as early as 1437.  Ihde states abundant evidence for widespread use of various technical devices at least in the Renaissance and . in Early Netherlandish painting .  Jan van Eyck 's 1434 painting Arnolfini Portrait shows a convex mirror in the centre of the painting. Van Eyck also left his signature above this mirror,  showing the importance of the tool. The painting includes a crown glass window in the upper left side, a rather expensive luxury at the time. Van Eyck was rather fascinated by glass and its qualities, which was as well of high symbolic importance for his contemporaries.  Early optical instruments were comparatively expensive in the Medieval age and the Renaissance. 
Through the following links you can visit the web page and contact the professors-scientists who are authorized to supervise thesis within the EDAR program.
A co-direction of thesis is also possible, associating one EPFL scientist and one of the thesis directors. For more information about this possibility and its implications, please refer to co-directing a thesis in Doctoral school EDOC whose regulations are applicable in EDAR program.
To view theses supervised by faculty members listed below, see the EDAR PhD theses page .
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